Damascus was conquered by Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Damascus became the site of a struggle between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic empires. The control of the city passed frequently from one empire to the other. Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander's generals, made Antioch the capital of his vast empire, which led to the decline of Damascus' importance compared with new Seleucid cities such as Latakia in the north. Later, Demetrius III Philopator rebuilt the city and renamed it Demetrias. In 64 BC, the Roman general Pompey annexed the western part of Syria. The Romans occupied Damascus and subsequently incorporated it into the league of ten cities known as the Decapolis. Damascus became a metropolis by the beginning of the 2nd century and in 222 it was upgraded to a colonia by the Emperor Septimius Severus. During the Pax Romana, Damascus and the Roman province of Syria in general began to prosper. Damascus's importance as a caravan city was evident with the trade routes from southern Arabia, Palmyra, Petra, and the silk routes from China all converging on it.

Antiochus XII Hover to enlarge Antiochus XII

Antiochus XII
87 to 85 BC
Obvs: Antiochus diademed and unbearded right
AE 20x21mm, 7.8g
Order # G 202
Ref: SNG Isr.388.2904, SC 2 2476

Demetrios III Hover to enlarge Demetrios III

Demetrios III
Mint: Damascus
96 to 95 BC
Obvs: Diademed radiate and bearded right.
Revs: BA[IΛEΩ[ ΔHMHTPIOV ΘEOV ΦIΛOΠATOPO[ [ΩTHPO[, Nike holding wreath and palm within dotted border. IIЄ in ex, A monogram to right. NI ΦI to left.
AE 19x20mm, 7.66g
Order # G 258
cf. SC 2 2454.5, monogram not published